Document Type : Original Article


Department of Preparatory Year – Basic Sceinces, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia.


Parking a vehicle in dense traffic environments often leads to excessive driving time in search of free space, which leads to congestion and environmental pollution. Lack of guidance information about vacant parking spaces is one reason for inefficient parking behavior. Smart parking sensors and technologies facilitate the guidance of drivers to free parking spaces, thereby improving parking efficiency. Currently, no such sensors or technologies are used for the open parking lot. This study reviews the literature on the usage of smart parking sensors, technologies, and applications and evaluates their applicability to open parking lots. To develop smart parking applications for open parking lots, further research is needed in deep learning and multi-agent systems.


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